Norway’s large areas of marine and coastal waters are rich in resources and support a wide variety of species and habitats. However, human activity and climate change are becoming growing threats to the biodiversity of these areas. This is why Norway has developed an integrated marine management system involving cooperation between authorities in a number of sectors.
Rich marine resources
Norway’s marine areas are divided into three main areas for management purposes: from north to south, they are the Barents Sea–Lofoten area, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Sea and Skagerrak. These marine waters are very productive and home to a rich variety of species, from cold-water corals to large fish stocks, seabirds and marine mammals.
The marine environment is generally clean and healthy, but there is growing pressure from human activity, especially in southerly areas. It is vital to safeguard the environmental value of Norway’s waters as they become more heavily used for resource extraction, harvesting and other activities.
Valuable coastal waters
Norway’s coastal waters support a rich and varied flora and fauna. Many areas are important for commercial fisheries and suitable for aquaculture. Moreover, coastal waters and the coastline itself are important recreation areas for many people. About 80% of Norway’s population lives less than 10 km from the sea. A number of authorities share the responsibility for spatial management and environmental and resource management in Norway’s coastal waters. Their overall objective is to ensure that these waters are clean and achieve good ecological status.
Marine and coastal waters under pressure
Norway’s marine and coastal ecosystems are affected by human activity at sea, on land and along the coast. Pressures range from fisheries, aquaculture, shipping and oil and gas production to runoff of nutrients and other pollutants from onshore industry, agriculture and waste water treatment, and marine litter. In addition, pollutants reach Norway’s marine ecosystems through long-range transport in the atmosphere and with ocean currents.
In combination, these pressures may result in habitat destruction and alteration, biodiversity loss and population decline, all of which put vulnerable species under additional pressure. In addition, sea temperatures are rising and sea ice is melting as a result of climate change. Seawater is absorbing more carbon dioxide, causing ocean acidification. This may result in major changes in ecosystems and is therefore a serious concern. Key calcifying organisms such as small crustaceans and corals may be particularly at risk from ocean acidification.
Integrated management of marine and coastal waters
Norway is using an integrated marine management regime to achieve good environmental status for all its sea areas. Integrated management plans for the Barents Sea–Lofoten area, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Sea and Skagerrak have been drawn up and are being implemented by the competent authorities in cooperation with scientific experts. The plans include steps to strengthen knowledge and a range of measures for achieving good environmental status.
The marine management plans apply as far inshore as the baseline. Coastal waters inside the baseline are managed by the authorities for each river basin district under the Water Management Regulations (which incorporate the EU Water Framework Directive into Norwegian law). The marine and coastal management regimes are designed to take into account the interactions between marine and coastal waters and their ecosystems.